Although this methodological limitation is a recurrent issue in the field of public opinion research, its effects might be amplified with the more serious nature of the topic of confidence or trust in the police. Respondents might provide opinions that are not a true reflection of their real opinion when they are “pressured” to respond. One of the ways suggested in the literature to remedy this limitation is to replace the standard “no opinion” response option with a softer, more inviting “…or haven’t you thought about this recently? Another option is to introduce a screening question enquiring how much, and to what extent, the respondent has thought lately about police performance. Asking such a question before inquiring about the respondent’s opinion on confidence or trust in the police will allow the researcher to better classify the opinions of respondents during the analysis of the poll results . The public’s level of satisfaction with the police is a complex concept that is often difficult to quantify and gathering data can be costly (Clarke, 2002; Castle, 2008; Ganjavi, 2000; Gallagher et al, 2001; Gomes, 2007; Marx, 1976; Moore and Braga, 2003).

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Partly desistance involves moving away from one’s former identity as a gang member and beginning to form a new identity. For Aboriginal youth, this involves the further change of seeing oneself as no longer conforming to a negative stereotype. It involves moving from a position of being excluded from social opportunities to seeing oneself as deserving to be included. Building associations and developing trust with prosocial others are major challenges (Deane, Bracken, & Morrissette, 2007). A gang may be attractive to those facing difficult social and economic conditions including poverty, low educational performance, lack of job-related skills, and social disorganization. If young people perceive that a future of helplessness and hopelessness awaits them, the gang lifestyle may appear to offer them a better alternative.

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Since that time, many research and evaluation studies have been added to this growing field. In the 1990s, gangs and their activities were given renewed attention when media organizations and many police departments began to increasingly attribute street shootings in many cities to youth gangs . Over the past 25 years, this has led to increased efforts by researchers, evaluators and policymakers to better understand the issue and to develop solutions to address youth gang involvement and gang-related activities in Canada.

  • They may experience barriers to equitable opportunities in Canada, and encounter a wide range of obstacles and challenges in accessing services and support in the social services, education, health and justice arenas.
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  • Surveys can be a very powerful tool to collect data that would supplement the traditional measures of police performance.

Maguire and Johnson attempted to combine the theory and research from the four backgrounds and create unique indicators of citizens’ perceptions of police. They combined the four backgrounds with a purpose to test Mastrofski’s six-dimensional model of the service aspects of policing, resulting in 27 indicators of service quality of, and satisfaction with, the policeFootnote 6. The survey was then administered through mail to a small suburban community in Virginia, U.S. A total of 374 questionnaires was sent out, and 138 were returned completed. A method of confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the data with a goal of determining whether Mastrofski’s six dimensions were supported by unique factors; results indicated that they were not. Maguire and Johnson speculated that the unique factors were not supported for three reasons.

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Archivaria, the journal of the Association of Canadian Archivists , is devoted to the scholarly investigation of archives in Canada and internationally. Articles and other submissions are welcomed which explore the history, nature, and theory of archives and the use of archives. The journal aims to be a bridge of communication among archivists, and between archivists and users of archives. Thanks to support from ACRL, there are no article processing fees or any other cost to articles accepted for publication. Any request for a name change will result in removal of the earlier name from any and all publication repositories. This extends to both the metadata of the article, as well as the PDF of the article itself.

9.5%) fell on an annual average basis amid favourable conditions in growing regions and abundant supply. Prices for services increased 2.3% on an annual average basis in 2021, after a gain of 1.4% in 2020. When turning concepts or factors into measurable indicators in a form of a question, use appropriate methods to test the questions for validity and reliability. Designing new questions should involve a panel of experts and/or stakeholders, as well as extensive revisions. Software like SQP can be used to test the questions for validity and reliability.

This time, our scale is very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not very satisfied, or not at all satisfied. Where possible, a method of factor analysis should be applied to group multiple concepts into factors from which questions can be designed. There are different types of surveys that researchers can employ in order to derive these indicators. The AQI provides clear expectations, service standards and city index review guidelines for child care programs. So, in addition to the rating, we encourage you to visit the child care and observe the program, speak to staff and ask the supervisor any questions you might have about the centre’s quality rating. The learning environment reviews expectations related to the play materials and looks to ensure the environment is safe for children and maintained in a hygienic manner.

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Appendix: Selected Questions on Police Performance Asked on Public Opinion Polls

The amount and type of service that is provided to participants are important factors that contribute to changes in the outcomes being measured. To determine the appropriate level of programming and to identify the level and domains of risk and protective factors specific to each participant, validated assessment tool should be used. Identifying and recruiting appropriate youth for gang prevention and intervention programming is difficult. The clientele needs to be well defined and programming must consider the clientele being targeted to ensure that appropriate supports and resources are being provided (e.g., gender-specific, culturally-based). Coming into contact with the criminal justice system, through incarceration and other sanctions, can also act as a turning point for young women .

They should be provided in a safe and nurturing environment (including single-sex space) favourable to therapeutic change. Social exclusion and devaluation related to social class, race, sexual orientation and gender. The loss of cultural identity, combined with social and economic marginalization, fuels gang violence. A gang can provide the means to acquire material goods and resources that may not be available through legitimate means. In many instances, joining a gang and a turn to illegal activities is a way for individuals to increase income and achieve financial goals.

Rates of internalized violence, including suicide, drug overdose, and self-injurious behaviours are far higher than externalized forms of criminal violence. Many acts of physical violence in Aboriginal gangs are motivated by revenge, retaliation and reputation, and the result is that young Aboriginal men are harming other young Aboriginal men . While annual average prices increased at a faster pace in every province in 2021, some regions felt the impact more than others. Atlantic Canadians faced the fastest rates of consumer price growth, as people migrated to the region from other provinces. Prince Edward Island (+5.1%) and Nova Scotia (+4.1%) recorded the highest rates of inflation, while price growth in all Atlantic provinces exceeded the national average.

Promote equity – stakeholders should address equity in resource allocation and availability of services, support and opportunities that in turn ensure equitable outcomes of wellbeing and success of youth from immigrant families. New strategies and approaches, as well as collaboration and problem-solving partnerships must be culturally competent; this goes beyond ‘cultural awareness’ and ‘cultural sensitivity’ . For example, the Medicine Wheel is an important symbol in Aboriginal teachings; it is a circular, holistic approach as opposed to the linear approach used in many Western settings . Further, in Aboriginal cultures, the concept of healing is a central theme which has broad application. It generally refers to an ongoing process, the practice and journey of ‘living well’ or of seeking ‘the good life’ .

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There are numerous examples of surveys that already enquire about people’s fear of crime in their neighbourhood, including walking alone at night, whether their level of fear has increased or decreased compared to last year, etc. Further, some surveys ask questions about citizens’ initiatives to protect themselves and improve their security. These measures can act as indirect measures of police performance in reducing the fear of crime when, for example, there is a noticeable shift from individual strategies of self-defence to the collective efforts of battling crime. Clearance rates, which are the proportion of crimes solved by a police jurisdiction in a given period of time, are yet another traditional measure of police performance that has been used widely. In an ideal type of scenario, this indicator portrays the efficiency of police to counter crime in their assigned areas.

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Glassdoor has millions of jobs plus salary information, company reviews, and interview questions from people on the inside making it easy to find a job that’s right for you. Now some questions about whether or not the police in treat victims of crime equally. I am going to read a list of programs and services provided to you by the City of Saint John.

Similar to arrests, the infractions given out may vary greatly across police jurisdictions due to differences in operational police policies. Some jurisdictions may be seen as harsher enforcers of traffic laws, whereas others may be seen as more lenient. Some jurisdictions may decide to invest more in roadside alcohol-testing program, which will result in a greater number of infractions and charges. Provincial and territorial traffic laws vary as well, paving the way for variations in enforcing the laws.

A desire for the protection and sense of belonging offered by gangs may be a consequence of growing up in dysfunctional and abusive families, and low levels of parental involvement or attachment, as well as family disadvantage and poverty. Young women are likely to describe experiences of membership in terms of providing an alternative family structure (Archer & Grascia, 2006; Nimmo, 2001; Totten, 2008). For immigrant youth, the decision to leave the gang may involve a traumatic turning point, such as the death of bystanders or close friends and peer betrayal, as well as the tipping points of cognitive maturity and religious awakening. With self-determination and strong support from family members, immigrant youth may gradually distance and disconnect themselves from other gang members, and start a new life. In order to reintegrate into their family and communities, they may rely on family and social support.